Protecting invisible children in England: how human rights education could improve school safeguarding
This article brings together two distinct but interrelated fields: human rights education (HRE) and safeguarding. It endeavours to show that the former can be beneficial for the efficacy of the latter. By extending an argument put forward recently that for HRE to be effective it must enable children to recognise and respond to lived human rights injustices, the article places this important issue within the existing framework and processes associated with safeguarding young people in formal education. It attempts to both elucidate and consolidate the connection between HRE and safeguarding, arguing that if HRE were to become an integral part of safeguarding training and delivery, children may be better equipped to recognise and speak up about violations of their human rights, rather than relying on a passive system of adult observation.
Action for Children., National Children’s Bureau., National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children., The Children’s Society., & Barnardo’s. (2020). Children and young people’s services: Funding and spending 2010/11 to 2018/19. Retrieved from https://media.actionforchildren.org.uk/documents/Joint_report_-_childrens_services_funding_2018-19_May_2020_Final.pdf.
Alderson, P. (1999). Human rights and democracy in schools: Do they mean more than simply “picking up litter and not killing whales”? The International Journal of Children’s Rights, 7, 185-205. https://doi.org/10.1163/15718189920494336 https://doi.org/10.1163/15718189920494336
Association of Directors of Children’s Services: Leading Children’s Services. (2018). Safeguarding pressures phase 6. Retrieved from https://adcs.org.uk/safeguarding/article/safeguarding-pressures-phase-6.
Baginsky, M., Driscoll, J., Manthorpe,J., & Purcell, C. (2019). Perspectives on safeguarding and child protection in English schools: The new educational landscape explored. Educational Research, 61(4), 469-481. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131881.2019.1677167 https://doi.org/10.1080/00131881.2019.1677167
Bajaj, M. (2012). Schooling for social change: The rise and impact of human rights education in India. New York City, NY: Continuum. https://doi.org/10.5040/9781350091221 https://doi.org/10.5040/9781350091221
Bentley, H., Burrows, A., Clarke, L., Gillgan, A., Glen, J., Hafizi, M., & Walker. J. (2016). How safe are our children? London, UK: National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. Retrieved from https://learning.nspcc.org.uk/media/2287/how-safe-are-our-children-2020.pdf.
Council of Europe. (n.d.) Tell someone you trust: Make use of your Lanzarote Convention Rights. Retrieved from https://rm.coe.int/CoERMPublicCommonSearchServices/DisplayDCTMContent?documentId=090000168048bb6e.
Covell, K., & Howe, R.B. (2001). Moral education through the 3Rs: Rights, respect and responsibility. Journal of Moral Education, 30(1), 29-41. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057240120033794 https://doi.org/10.1080/03057240120033794
Coventry Safeguarding Children Board. (September 2013). Serious case review re Daniel Pelka: Overview report. Retrieved from http://mandatenow.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/FINAL-Overview-Report-DP-130913-Publication-version-1.pdf.
Department for Education. (March 2020). Complexity and challenge: A triennial analysis of serious case reviews 2014-2017. Retrieved from https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/869586/TRIENNIAL_SCR_REPORT_2014_to_2017.pdf.
Department for Education. (September 2021). Keeping children safe in education (2020): Statutory guidance for schools and colleges. Part one: Information for all school and college staff. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/keeping-children-safe-in-education--2
Draugedalen, K., Kleive, H., & Grov, Ø. (2021). Preventing harmful sexual behaviour in primary schools: Barriers and solutions. Child Abuse & Neglect, 121, Article 105295 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2021.105295 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2021.105295
Hall, C.M., Runion, M.C., & Perkins, D.F. School‐based prevention of and intervention in child maltreatment: Current practice in the United States and future directions In L.Dixon, D.F. Perkins,C. Hamilton-Giachritsis, C., & L.A. Craig, (Eds.), (2017). The Wiley handbook of what works in child maltreatment: An evidence-based approach to assessment and intervention in child protection (pp. 367-384). West Sussex, UK: John Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118976111.ch22 https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118976111.ch22
Haringey serious case reviews: child A (2008). Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/haringey-local-safeguarding-children-board-first-serious-case-review-child-a.
HM Government. (2018). Working together to safeguarding children: A guide to inter-agency working to safeguard and promote the welfare of children. Retrieved from https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/942454/Working_together_to_safeguard_children_inter_agency_guidance.pdf.
Howe, R.B., & Covell, K. (2010). Miseducating children about their rights. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 5(2), 91-102. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1746197910370724 https://doi.org/10.1177/1746197910370724
Jennings, T. (1994). Self-in-connection as a component of human rights advocacy and education. Journal of Moral Education, 23(3), 285-295. https://doi.org/10.1080/0305724940230306 https://doi.org/10.1080/0305724940230306
Katz, S.R., & Spero, A.M., (2015). Challenges and triumphs of teaching for human rights. In: S.R Katz & A.M Spero (Eds.), Bringing human rights education to US classrooms (pp. 15-28). New York City, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137471130_2 https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137471130_2
Lord Laming. (2003). The Victoria Climbe Inquiry. Retrieved from https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/273183/5730.pdf.
Lundy, L. (2007). Voice is not enough: Conceptualising Article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. British Educational Research Journal, 33(6), 927-942. https://doi.org/10.1080/01411920701657033 https://doi.org/10.1080/01411920701657033
Lundy, L., & Martínez Sainz, G. (2018). The role of law and legal knowledge for a transformative human rights education: Addressing violations of children’s rights in formal education. Human Rights Education Review, 1(2), 4-24. https://doi.org/10.7577/hrer.2560 https://doi.org/10.7577/hrer.2560
National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. (2020). Isolated and struggling. Retrieved from https://learning.nspcc.org.uk/media/2246/isolated-and-struggling-social-isolation-risk-child-maltreatment-lockdown-and-beyond.pdf.
National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. (n.d.). Recently published case reviews. Retrieved from https://learning.nspcc.org.uk/case-reviews/recently-published-case-reviews
North East Lincolnshire Local Safeguarding Children Board (2017). Serious case review report: Child T. Retrieved from https://library.nspcc.org.uk/HeritageScripts/Hapi.dll/filetransfer/2017NorthEastLincolnshireChildTOverview.pdf?filename=AA58F75CEDE68892A73FB681FE246B8371684F102152F0AA780A14959D3BCE5767137B3B2A935011CBAEC3068664FF681AA6D2524E357BAB96C006752CCD756759AD77BD1E389823A55CFAAE74B2EE64F46C611AD1724BE1AC50776135E4AAAFFECACF7BEE2B7AE13EA01A874DF030E57724ED5DD8BE31E24AF9FF55A26D6807F32AA9CB669BC2E8F6BE062F4EA279666BC1A0C7D2F589961DA4284BDF5C71F371DF8882&DataSetName=LIVEDATA
Osler, A., (2015). HRE: Postcolonial scholarship, and action for social justice. Theory and Research in Social Education, 43(2), 222-274. https://doi.org/10.1080/00933104.2015.1034393 https://doi.org/10.1080/00933104.2015.1034393
Queens University Belfast. (n.d.). Participation for Protection (P4P) Project, information for children and young people. Retrieved from https://www.qub.ac.uk/sites/participation-for-protection/InformationforChildrenandYoungPeople/.
Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse. (2017). Final report: Identifying and disclosing child sexual abuse. Volume 4. Retrieved from https://www.childabuseroyalcommission.gov.au/sites/default/files/final_report_-_volume_4_identifying_and_disclosing_child_sexual_abuse.pdf.
Stobart, E. (2017). Lessons learnt from a serious case review: BSCB 2016-17/1: “I just wanted someone to ask me” – Isobel. Retrieved from https://library.nspcc.org.uk/HeritageScripts/Hapi.dll/filetransfer/2017BirminghamBSCB2016-17-1LessonsLearnt.pdf?filename=AA58F75CEDE68892A73FB681FE246B8371684F102152F0AA780A14959D3BCE5767137B3B2A935011CBAEC3068664FF681AA6D2524E357BAB96C006752CCD756759AD77BD1E389823A55CFAAE74B2EE64F46C611AD1724BE1AC50776135E4AAAFFECACF7BEE277CE127A1318156E511CE4A04C00386FC6FA609AB910C87647F20D332BFF57593D5F1ACE0122D019DBB937FB8B2775B324F182FD8544A66BD03B9D6F2975CF4&DataSetName=LIVEDATA
Struthers, A.E.C. (2015). Human rights education: Educating about, through and for human rights’. The International Journal of Human Rights, 19(1), 53-73. https://doi.org/10.1080/13642987.2014.986652 https://doi.org/10.1080/13642987.2014.986652
Struthers, A.E.C. (2020). Teaching human rights in primary schools: Overcoming the barriers to effective practice. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315201719 https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315201719
Tibbits, F., & Kirschlaeger, P.G. (2010) Perspectives of research on human rights education. Journal of Human Rights Education, 2(1), 8-29. Retrieved from https://blogs.cuit.columbia.edu/peace/files/2013/05/tibbitts_kirchschlaeger_research_hre_jhre_1_2010.pdf
United Nations General Assembly. (2010). Final evaluation of the implementation of the first phase of the World Programme for Human Rights Education (A/65/322). Retrieved from https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/690284?ln=en.
United Nations General Assembly. (2012). United Nations Declaration on Human Rights Education and Training (A/RES/66/137). Retrieved from https://www.ohchr.org/en/issues/education/training/pages/undhreducationtraining.aspx
United Nations Children’s Fund., & Child Rights Connect (n.d.). The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child - The Children’s Version: Retrieved from https://www.unicef.org/media/56661/file
Vesterdal, K. (2019). Championing human rights close to home and far away: Human rights education in the light of national identity construction and foreign policy in Norway. Human Rights Education Review, 2(1), 5-24. https://doi.org/10.7577/hrer.2907 https://doi.org/10.7577/hrer.2907
Wiffin, J. (2017). Serious case review: Child J. Retrieved from https://library.nspcc.org.uk/HeritageScripts/Hapi.dll/filetransfer/2017NottinghamCityChildJOverview.pdf?filename=AA58F75CEDE68892A73FB681FE246B8371684F102152F0AA780A14959D3BCE5767137B3B2A935011CBAEC3068664FF681AA6D2524E357BAB96C006752CCD756759AD77BD1E389823A55CFAAE74B2EE64F46C611AD1724BE1AC50776135E4AAAFFECACF7BEE2B7AE73EA1318156E511CF7033FB72DEA435EF72D3CA58B9776536CB72BCDD762020B1745580B927E218A1ED57669876CB48CEB62ED71E48&DataSetName=LIVEDATA
Zembylas, M., Charalambous, P., Lesta, S., & Charalambous, C. (2015). Primary school teachers’ understandings of human rights and human rights education in Cyprus: An exploratory study. Human Rights Review, 16, 161-182. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12142-014-0331-5 https://doi.org/10.1007/s12142-014-0331-5
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Alison E.C Struthers
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with Human Rights Education Review agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).